Preliminary Notes on Analysis of Theodor Adorno's Minima Moralia, by Eduardo Navas

Detail of Minima Moralia 21 and 22 and their respective remixes

Image 1: Word cloud visualizations of Theodor Adorno's Minima Morlia, aphorisms 21 and 22 on the left and their corresponding remixes on the right. (Click image for detail)

My first post for Minima Moralia Redux is dated October 16 2011, but I had done much research prior to this date. I had been reading extensively on Theodor Adorno and his work, while also creating visualizations of YouTube viral memes for my post-doc at The Department of Information Science and Media Studies at the University of Bergen in affiliation with The Software Studies Lab in San Diego, now also based in NYC.  As I analyzed meme patterns, it became evident that much of the material that is discussed in terms of remixing in music and video, which is also quite popular across media culture, usually relies on acts of selectivity--meaning that with the ubiquity of cut/copy & paste, people tend to re-contextualize pre-existing material, much how DJs and producers used sampling to remix in dance music culture during the eighties. [1]

Image 2: Word cloud visualization of the first thirty aphorisms in Theodor Adorno's Minima Moralia. (Click image to view large file)

Minima Moralia Redux is a type of mashup, itself, of art, writing as a literary act, and media research that explores how data visualization is providing new possibilities for understanding creative processes. The project explores the selective remix, which arguably is quite popular across culture since cut/copy and paste became a common act due to daily use of computers. Certainly this is the type of remixing that most people debate over in remix culture. The selective remix consists of evaluating the source material and deciding what to leave and what to omit, as well as what to add, all while making sure that the source material remains recognizable.[2]  This means that large parts are kept as originally produced while others may be radically different. A tension in authorship develops, as the remixer clearly shows creativity quite similar to an "author's." At the same time, the remixed work relies heavily on the cultural recognition of the author and his/her work.  Much has been written about such tensions, but it is my hope that the research I am now introducing here in preliminary fashion will be a contribution to understanding how we come to create works that appear to be autonomous and credited to a single person, and how we can move past such conventions to more productive approaches that do justice to the way culture is communicating at an ever increasing pace.

Image 3: Word cloud visualization of the remixes of the first thirty aphorisms in Theodor Adorno's Minima Moralia (Click image for large file)

Minima Moralia Redux has various layers of significance. First, I wanted to explore, as I already explained, how the selective remix functions. I decided to do this by embedding myself in the process, as opposed to studying another person's remix. In this project, I examine each entry carefully, do research on it, and eventually re-write it to make it relevant to issues that are taking place in contemporary times. While doing this, I keep in mind that it is the voice of Adorno that is at play here. This means that I need to make sure that Adorno's theories remain his.  In other words, it is not necessarily my opinion that is expressed in the remixes, although I do take creative license and adjust-- even critique Adorno's views within his own writing. This is no different than a music remixer who often times will create a different piece of music, one which nevertheless, is not credited to him/her as author/artist, but only as a person who remixed the author's work. In the case of music this is done in the commercial sector for increasing sales, but in remix culture, it is done because people may simply love doing it, and/or are fans of the artist/author.  Taking this approach with Adorno's work, I argue, is only fair given that Adorno himself believed in revising one's view on life and the world. In the 1960s, he admitted that some of his critical analysis in Dialectic of Enlightenment, which he co-wrote with Horkheimer, no longer stood their ground in 1969. He considers the book "a piece of documentation." By this Adorno and Horkheimer let the book be part of history. [3]  Based on this critical position on his part, it is very unlikely, for instance, that in 2013, he would use the word "savage" as he did when he wrote aphorism 32.[4]  The result of this approach in Minima Moralia Redux is a new text that is clearly still in large part Adorno's, but which I hope resonates with the language and issues of the twenty first century.

I rewrite each aphorism  one sentence at a time, evaluating it word for word. I study the history of particular words, and evaluate the sentence's relevance during the times when the book was written. I then consider how it may be understood and at play in contemporary times. When I rewrite the aphorisms I am conscious of the way remixing functions in music and video, and apply it to writing to see what the results may be. At the same time, I become immersed in the creative process based on intuition as I am also interested in exploring aesthetics.  I use two translations for the rewriting of each entry. The first is by Dennis Redmond, available on, and the other is the official English publication of Minima Moralia translated by E. F. N. Jephcott for Verso Press. I combine parts from both sources, while adjusting sentence structure, and I add and delete material to come up with a statement that is relevant to contemporary times.

For the word cloud visualizations I use Many Eyes, an online resource developed by Martin Wattenberg for IBM. The clouds are useful to evaluate how often words are repeated in the original entries. The visualization of the original text appears at the top of each blog entry. The main section of each post consists of the remixed text with a link to the original source available on At the bottom is a thumb image of the same visualization along with a second visualization of the actual remix. These thumb images are presented with each post to provide a quick understanding of how key terms are reused and others omitted, while others are added in accordance to the principles of selective remixing. The reader can click on each thumb image to view a detailed version and compare them. I provide two visualizations of aphorisms  at the top of this entry (image 1).

The visualizations expose the constant usage of particular words, and when comparing the original entries to the remixed versions, it becomes evident how selectivity is at play. For instance, one can notice in aphorisms 21 and 22 that some of the words that are more pronounced in the original entry are still repeated often in the remixed versions, while others disappear and others are added (larger words means more repetition, smaller, less frequent). This is similar to how remixing functions in music as well.  I am also evaluating sentence structure and actual number of word repetition for each visualization. I will be releasing a concrete analysis of all this in the future in connection to viral memes, as well as a set of YouTube video mashups. The latter research I have not made available online at all, but two of the videos part of this research can be found on page 106 in my book Remix Theory.  My research of the selective remix as found in the thirty entries that I share on this post is part of my examination of selectivity in other forms of online media production. The idea to look at how remixing functions in text developed out my research in analyzing video. My findings so far have been that there are patterns that certainly crossover among image, music and text, which enables the viewer or reader to sense how remixing is at play in particular pieces.

So far I have remixed thirty-five aphorisms, and provide visualizations of thirty of them as part of this post. Image 2 offers an overall sense of the originals, and image 3 a comparative sensibility of how they were changed after they were remixed.  The process behind the production of each remixed entry takes quite some time to perform, so it will be a while before I can release my final version of this project. This brief entry should at least provide some details on the process that makes Minima Moralia Redux possible.

Below I provide a two column comparative visualization of the first thirty aphorisms (image 4). On the left are the original entries, and on the right appear the remixes. Examining one next to the other provides an idea of how different patterns are at play within and across the originals and the remixes, while looking at them as a large group gives a sense of the aesthetics of writing as a creative act--something that certainly cannot be fully measured, but one could hope can be appreciated.

Image 4: A two column comparison of the first thirty aphorisms of Theodor Adorno's Minima Moralia and their remixed versions. Comparing each aphorism with its corresponding remix shows the process of selectivity that takes place in remixing text, which is deliberately performed, in this case, along the line of music remixing.

[1] I go over much of this in my book: Remix Theory: The Aesthetics of Sampling.
[2] If  too much material is omitted, then the remix may start to lean towards other types of remixes which will not be discussed in this instance. See chapter three in Remix Theory.
[3]Mark Horkheimer & Theodor Adorno, Dialectic of Enlightenment, trans. Edmund Jephcott (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987), xi -xii.
[4] See my remix, which is an extensive critique of Adorno's conflicted bourgeois position, by using his own words:

Voy a hablar en la conferencia de Santiago, Lunes 19 de agosto

Voy a hablar en la conferencia de Santiago

Lunes 19 de agosto / GAM [Av. Libertador Bernardo O’Higgins 227, Santiago]

Visualidades [datos, colecciones, archivos].
Nuevos humanismos en la politización de la imagen.

Fecha: 19, 20 y 21 de agosto, 2013.

Sedes: GAM + FAU Universidad de Chile + Mil M2.

programa de la Conferencia:

The subject of Software Studies

The subject of Software Studies

Software Studies continues "new media theory" from 1990s. For me, its logical to focus on where new media is now - large software systems such as Google products, social media sites like Instagram, apps for mobile platforms, etc. So its not only about artistic works like in the 1990s.

The artistic experiments of the 1990s and early 2000s - implemented on industrial scale - are now redefining how we interact with each other and our objects, represent ourselves to others, and understand the word. (The early experiments with using body as interface now became the new normal (multi-touch, gestures, Kinect). The early experiments with collage like presentation of the web contents now rule the web (layouts of Facebook timeline and Pinterest boards. And so on.)

"New media" has become The media.

Free download: Chapter 6 from "Software Takes Command" (not included in the book)

To keep my book Software Takes Command (Bloomsbury Academic, July 2013) from being excessively long, I omitted Chapter 6.

Here is this chapter:

Lev Manovich. Chapter 6 from Software Takes Command (not included in the book).

(The chapter is based on my article Image Future, 2006.)


Today filmmakers and media designers often use the techniques of 3D computer graphics, traditional animation, and cinematography in combination to create new hybrid moving image forms. The results are hybrids which do not fit any moving image mediums we know from the 20th century. In this chapter I discuss this process using the example of a particularly intricate hybrid – Universal Capture method used in the second and third films of The Matrix trilogy.

This analysis extends two key arguments of the book that are summarized in Conclusion (pp. 336-337):

The unique properties and techniques of different media became software elements that can be combined together in previously impossible ways. Both the simulated and new media types — text, hypertext, still photographs, digital video, 2D animation, 3D animation, navigable 3D spaces, maps, location information, interactive elements — function as building blocks for many new media combinations.

This leads me to view contemporary media development using a model of biological evolution and its concept of massive numbers of species that share common traits — away from the modern model of a small number of very different mediums with their unique languages. Instead of trying to place any particular project, app, or web service in some category selected from a small number, we can instead view it as a combination of the techniques selected from a very large pool. Some of these combinations occur more often; others may only occur once. The successful combinations become popular, leading to similar projects; and some may become design patterns used in numerous applications.

Up to 40 travel grants for young researchers to participate in Herrenhausen Conference on Digital Humanities, 12/2013, Germany


December, 5-7, 2013, Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover

Full Conference program

Confirmed participants include: Lawrence Lessig, Julia Flanders, Jeffrey Schnapp, Horst Bredekamp, Lev Manovich, Eleanor Selfridge-Field, Peter Weibel.


The Volkswagen Foundation offers up to 40 Travel Grants for young researchers who wish to attend the conference.

One project – three slides – three minutes!

Our objective is to present new research questions and / or new methodological or technological approaches arising from digital humanities and by this challenging the traditional humanist perspective. The question is: What specific value does your project add to the digital humanities?

Presentation and Poster

Recipients of the travel grants are required to present their project in a three minutes "Lightening Talk" as well as on a poster in a poster session. Powerpoint, etc. can be used, but limit yourself to max. three slides. Every presenter has only three minutes to present his / her project.

Application Details

As a general rule, researchers eligible for the travel grant are Ph.D. students, Postdocs or Assistant Professors.

Applicants are required to apply until August 15, 2013. We are not able to consider applications after this deadline.

Apply by submitting the following documents (link: Travel Grant Application):

1. An abstract of the project you want to present (max. 2.200 characters including spaces).

2. A short text (1.000 characters) that explains what specific value your project adds to the digital humanities framework and argues why we should select your project.

3. A short C.V. of max. 1.000 characters (including spaces).

We will inform the applicants about the results by Mid-September 2013. If your application has been accepted, the VolkswagenStiftung will book a room for you and send you all necessary information regarding poster sizes, deadlines, travel, accommodation, and visa.

Please, only register for the conference beforehand if you plan to visit the conference regardless of your application’s acceptance.